Acute bleeding in dogs and cats
Depending on the place and source, bleeding can be divided into internal and external. The causes of bleeding can be various, most often trauma (car crashes, fights with other animals, falls from a height). Also, the location, source, and extent of bleeding will depend on the symptoms that the animal has, and in open bleeding, we will see the blood coming out directly from natural or acquired openings in the body, but if it is internal bleeding, we can only see signs of hemorrhagic and hypovolemic shock, and later in blood tests, we find anemia and hypoproteinemia.
In addition to bleeding caused by trauma and damage to blood vessels, bleeding can also occur due to coagulation disorders, which can cause spontaneous bleeding.
Bleeding therapy depends on the severity and location, but comes down to:
- Stabilization and intensive care
- Local hemostasis and prevention of further blood loss
- Transfusion of whole blood or blood derivatives
- Drug therapy.
In order to determine whether the animal has internal bleeding, in addition to the anamnesis taken from the owner and the clinical picture, additional diagnostic methods are needed (ultrasound examination, laboratory analyzes, X-rays, thoracic, and abdominocentesis). If the animal is in hemorrhagic shock on admission to the hospital, stabilization of the patient is necessary in the first place. The existence of available blood for transfusion is of great importance for the treatment of acute bleeding and coagulation disorders.