Congenital and acquired eyelid defects are a common cause of corneal lesions that can lead to discomfort and pain.
The most common eyelid abnormalities that require surgery are:
- Entropion – twisting of the eyelids towards the cornea, which results in corneal irritation of the hair/eyelashes from the eyelids.
- Ectropion – twisting of the eyelids and moving away from the surface of the eye, which results in exposure of the eye to external influences and drying of the eye.
- Distichiasis – hair growth from the very edge of the eyelids that often irritate the cornea and can cause ulcers.
- Trichiasis – hair from the nasal fold or eyelids, especially in animals that have wrinkled skin, reaches the eye and causes eye irritation.
- Ectopic cilia – hair growth from the conjunctiva of the eyelids that causes eye irritation.
- Lagophthalmus – an oversized opening made by the eyelids, so the eye globe protrudes and the eyelids cannot be completely closed, which is especially pronounced when the pet is asleep. Dogs with this problem have ulcers and pigment spots on the cornea and are prone to dry eye diseases. Frequent in breeds with a short snout – brachycephalic race.
- Exuberant eye wrinkles – in breeds with wrinkled skin – Shar Pei, Chow-Chow, Basset Hound, excess skin from the eyelids can disable the dog’s vision and lead to trichiasis.
- Eyelid tumors – benign or malignant tumors can develop on the eyelids, leading to eye irritation, pain, and discomfort in the eyes.