Medical & Surgical Ophthalmology

Medical & Surgical Ophthalmic Services

In the specialty ophthalmology veterinary clinic, we perform the following medical and surgical procedures:

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Eye examination

It is a basic part of every ophthalmological examination and includes an examination of the front (anterior) and back (posterior) segments of the eye, an examination of the eyelids and the orbit. The eyelids and the front segments of the eye (cornea, anterior chamber and lens) are examined with a very specific microscope (slit biomicroscope), while the back segments of the eye (vitreus, retina and optic nerve) is evaluated with a special optical instrument called an indirect ophthalmoscope.

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Determining the quality of vision in dogs, cats and other animals

An ophthalmologist uses various tests to determine the quality of a pet’s vision. These tests are especially important in monitoring certain diseases that can cause blindness, as well as in monitoring the response of a patient with varying degrees of visual impairment to therapy or a surgical procedure. Since pets are not able to complain of impaired vision, and use other senses in movement, owners find it difficult to notice their vision problems right away.



Tonometry is a diagnostic procedure used to determine intraocular pressure, with the help of a special instrument tonometer. The tonometer is an electronic device equipped with a pressure sensor, which very accurately assesses the intraocular pressure in many types of pets: dogs, cats, rabbits, birds, hamsters, house mice, ferrets, and rats. Elevated intraocular pressure can cause rapid damage to the back of the eye and lead to complete blindness within 12 hours of onset…

Cataract surgery

Cataracts are the most common cause of vision loss in pets. If it is not surgically treated, it can result in numerous complications: intraocular inflammation, luxation of the lens, retinal detachment, glaucoma and eventually blindness.

Cataract surgery is performed in a similar manner as in human patients (phacoemulsification)…

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Eye ultrasound

Ultrasound examination of the eye and orbit is used in situations when it is not possible to detect intraocular structures by direct observation, or when there is a suspicion that the problem is located behind the eye (in the orbit). We also use a special form of ultrasonography – high-frequency ultrasonography to detect in time…

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Eyelid surgery

Congenital and acquired eyelid defects are a common cause of corneal lesions that can lead to discomfort and pain. The most common eyelid abnormalities that require surgery…

Medical services

Tear production test (Schirmer test)

This is a test which is used to assess if your pet has “dry eye disease.” Dry eye disease is a common cause of eye discomfort and irritation, and can result in serious eye injuries and vision loss.

Examination of the nasolacrimal duct

The nasolacrimal duct is a tube which serves to drain excess tears from the eye bed into the nose or mouth. Sometimes it can become clogged or damaged, so due to the impossibility of drainage, tears flow from the eye and excessive tearing (epiphora) occurs. We use special instruments (probes) to examine the patency of these ducts.

X-ray of the orbit

Orbital X-ray is a diagnostic procedure that can detect fractures of the bones that make up the orbit, foreign bodies in the eye (usually metal fragments) or intraorbital as well as extraorbital neoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed by other examination techniques.

Histopathology and cytology analyzes

Reliable detection of neoplasia, determining whether the neoplasia is malignant or benign, detecting pathological changes of the eye that are allergic or autoimmune in nature, detecting the degree of abnormalities of the tissues and cells of the eye, is possible by histopathology and cytology examination in our hospital.

Special staining

Fluorescein staining and Rose Bengal staining are special staining procedures used to detect corneal ulcers and various eye injuries. If not detected in time, these defects can lead to diseases of the front segments and then the back segments of the eye, as well as visual impairment.

Pupil response to chromatic light test

This test is a special diagnostic procedure developed by dr Grozdanić and his research team at Iowa State University in 2006. Since then, it has been used by ophthalmologists on all continents to evaluate eye function. This test can detect retinal and optic nerve abnormalities in a timely manner even before vision problems occur.

Electroretinography (ERG)

Electroretinography is a special diagnostic procedure by which an ophthalmologist measures the electrical activity that originates from the back segment of the eye. This technique is especially useful in the early diagnosis of retinal photoreceptor disease. Photoreceptors are cells that convert a light signal into electrical information, which is further transmitted by the optic nerve from the eye to the brain. ERG is performed on an animal that has previously been in the dark for 20 minutes and to which eye drops are placed with a local anesthetic. If a pet is too excited, mild sedation is necessary to perform this test.

Surgical services

Third eyelid surgery

Prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid (cherry eye) sometimes occurs in young dogs and requires the gland to be returned (repositioned) to its original position. The gland must not be removed, and after repositioning, the gland may prolapse again. We use efficient surgical procedures for repositioning of the gland, with no recurrence. We also surgically treat lacerations and tumors of the third eyelid.

Nasolacrimal duct surgery

We routinely perform reconstruction of the nasolacrimal duct after traumatic or inflammatory injuries. If the opening of the nasolacrimal duct is missing, or is narrowed, the duct is surgically opened or widened, which allows the normal drainage of tears from the eye to the nose and mouth.

Corneal surgery

Corneal surgery is often a necessary procedure used for treatment or repair of corneal injuries, ulcers or sequestration, as well as for corneal epithelial and/or endothelial cell degeneration diseases. We perform numerous surgical procedures on the cornea (conjunctival graft, “free island” graft, corneoscleral transposition, superficial keratectomy, corneal transplants, etc.). All these interventions aim to eliminate discomfort and pain in the eye, as well as to preserve vision. Since the corneal tissue is thinner than 0.5 mm, all surgeries are performed with special surgical instruments and with the help of an operating microscope.

Glaucoma surgery

Glaucoma is a disease characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure. We perform various surgical interventions that reduce intraocular pressure (subconjunctival drainage implant, frontal sinus drainage implant, diode laser treatment of the ciliary body). We perform an ultrasound examination of the eye preoperatively and make a decision on which surgical intervention will have the best outcome.

Eye lens surgery

Lens luxation is an emergency condition that can lead to secondary glaucoma and vision loss in 12-24 hours. We perform lens removal surgery, which saves the vision.

Retinal surgery

Retinal detachment can be a very serious consequence of many inherited and acquired diseases. Some breeds of dogs are prone to this disease. We also perform preventive procedures for conditions that can be complicated by a retinal detachment, as well as surgery if the separation has already occurred (transpupillary and transscleral laser surgery, trans-scleral cryo procedure and intraoperative vitrectomy to prevent retinal detachment).

Orbital surgery

In case of severe injuries of the eye globe or malignant tumors, it is necessary to perform enucleation or evisceration. We use orbital exploratory surgery to remove foreign bodies or neoplasms.